|Visualization of Gestures in Conversational Turn-Taking-Situations||15.06.1998|
|2.3. Turn taking cues
While a number of studies have dealt with various behaviours which may be part of the turn-taking mechanism, only DUNCAN (1972) has dealt directly with it in its entirety. Taking an inductive approach, DUNCAN observed interactions, and then described the behaviour that accompanied speaking- role changes.
According to DUNCAN, in conversation we use turn-yielding cues, back-channel cues, and turn-maintaining cues. WIEMANN / KNAPP (1975) also identified turn-requesting cues.
DUNCAN (1972) identified six turn-yielding cues in conversation.13 Five are verbal or paralinguistic and transmitted via the auditory channel. These include:
A) intonation: the use of any pitch-level-terminal juncture combination other than at the end of a phonemic clause refers to a phonemic clause ending on a sustainded intermediate pitch level
B) drawl on the final syllable, or on the stressed syllable, of a terminal clause
C) sociocentric sequences: the appearance of one of several stereotyped expressions, typically following a substantive statement, e.g. "but ah", "you know", etc.
D) pitch / loudness: a drop in paralinguistic pitch and / or loudness in con- junction with one of the sociocentric sequences. When used, these expres- sions typically followed a terminal clause, but did not often share the same paralanguage
E) syntax: the completion of a grammatical clause involving a subject-predicate combination.14
The sixth turn-yielding cue involves gesticulation and is therefore transmitted via the visual channel.
Turn-requesting is more frequently accomplished by simultaneous talking. Buffers and reinforcers are also used.
Buffers are short words or phrases that are content-free and more or less stereotypical and that either precede or follow substantive statements (e.g., "but uh", "you know"). Buffers generally constitute a clear attempt by the auditor to get the floor. Occasionally, the buffers are uttered while the speaker is talking; but more often they are uttered while the speaker is silent, either during a pause or after the speaker has clearly ended his utterance. In the second case they seem to be a signal by the listener that he is ready to talk; the buffers allow the other participant time to attend to the new speaker before he begins his part. The use of buffers by the listener at this point may also constitute a signal to the speaker that he has accepted the speaker´s offer of the floor.18
Stutter starts are similar to buffers but may reveal a stronger demand to speak than buffers. Stutter starts are also likely to be used if the speaker has had the floor for fifteen to twenty seconds or if the speaker pauses longer than usual.19
|© 1998, Ulrich Grün, Detmold|